| The departure of youth migrants and their arrival in host countries generates a wide range of problems relating to economic, demographic, social and health issues on the one hand and socio-economic benefits on the other hand in their countries of origin and on their countries of refuge.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has divided international migrants into two groups: those who migrate of their own free will, leaving for study, work or to join their family, and those who migrate due to repression or natural disaster. The two categories have rapidly become interdependent because of their fairly interrelated motives of searching for better employment opportunities abroad.
Build on the aforementioned motives, youth migration from poor countries with low probability of employment to richer and more dynamic countries where there is an opportunity to find some sort of job and better welfare conditions has intensified over the last few years. As if to probably illustrate the phenomenon of youth exodus from poor countries the media recently reported the plight of Africans prepared to take on the desert to seek better life in Khadafi`s Libya.
Besides Libya other major centers of attraction are the United States and the European Union with countries in southern Europe gradually becoming immigrant-receiving countries. The third major region that attracts migrants is the oil rich Middle East. The fourth major region set to be another target for increasing numbers is Asia/ Pacific, including Australia and New Zealand.
Nevertheless, owing to the demographic reports in Europe, Europeans have become aware of the demographic turn down and the ageing of the population that will set in over the next few decades. The dearth of manpower in certain sectors is becoming a serious problem in numerous countries requiring a rethinking of immigration policies that have prevailed over the years. Though faced with the task to resolve this conundrum, Europe can no longer simply close its eyes as it consumes illegal youth workers whose entry into the E.U is prohibited thereby supplying circuits trafficking human beings.
The challenges of managing international migrants are manifold and urgent. The ambivalent reaction to this dynamic is reflected in procedures for legalizing foreigners without papers in certain countries. Other adjustments include harmonizing and improving refugee reception policies that regulate the legal entry of migrants while discouraging illegal migration and human trafficking. Another urgent challenge is taking an active part in the development policy of the youth migrant’s country of origin.
With the increasing figure of youth migrants moving away from their country’s of origin to developed countries, migration is on its way of becoming the heart of development. As long as under-development persists, wealthier countries will continue to be a magnet of people who find no economic development prospects at home. In an increasingly inter-connected world, neither privilege nor poverty can be contained within the borders.
What then are Youth Migration Outcomes on their Countries Of Origin?
Like slave trade, youth migration deprives Africa of the cream of its society. Migrants are a nation's most energetic, feisty and entrepreneurial citizens. Justifying this assertion Dieudone Gnammankou in his doctoral thesis in history and civilization presented a series of African slaves who at various times made remarkable contributions to arts and sciences in Europe while their original countries staggered in under-development and backwardness.
Juan Latino (1516-c.1595) was one of the greatest poets and scholars of 16th century Spain. He taught Latin and Greek at the university of Granada and is considered one of the monuments of 17th century Spanish literature.
Anton Amo, a native of what is now Ghana, lived in Germany in the 18th century, published three philosophical works and taught at the university of Halle, Wittenberg and Jena. He was also adviser to the court at Berlin.
Jean le Noir, an African protégé′ of Frederick II, was also appointed Vizier of the Kingdom of Sicily.
In the 16th century Venice, a black woman Anne, known as the Italian Cleopatra for her great beauty, was mistress to the Cardinal de Medici (the future pope Clement VII) a son was born of this union, Alessandro de Medici, known as the Moor, who became the first Duke of Florence.
Ignatius Sancho, in 18th century England became a celebrated man of letters and produced works among the best-sellers of his day.
Abraham Petrovitch Hanibal (1696-1781) born in Logone Cameroon, a learned engineer and author of the treatises Practical Geometry and Fortification, became technical director and general in chief of the Russian Imperial Army. He directed most of the major construction projects undertaking in Russia and founded the city of Elizabethgrad, ( Kirovagrad, Ukraine). The great grandson of Alexander Pushkin was Russia’s greatest poet.
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