|by EDITH CHIMA|
|Published on: Jan 10, 2005|
|The heart is a muscular organ located in the chest (thoracic) cavity and enclosed in a fibrous sac, the pericardium and the heart is filled with a water fluid which serves as lubricant as the heart moves within the sac.
The heart receives blood from all parts of the body. Blood is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs where it picks up fresh oxygen.
The coronary arteries bring oxygen – rich blood to the heart. If one of these arteries becomes blocked, a heart attack occurs. In a heart attack, the area of the heart muscle nourished by the blocked artery is damaged and may die. Arterioscleroses is a disease characterized by a thickening of the arterial wall with large numbers of abnormal smooth muscle cells and deposits of cholesterol and other substances in the portion of the vessel wall closet to the lumen.
The mechanisms, which initiate this thickening is not clear, but it is known that cigarette smoking, high plasma cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, and a variety of other factors are associated with increased incidence of this disease.
There are various kinds of heart diseases, which are as follows: Hypertension, Heart failure, Myocardial infection, Angina Pectoris, pericarditis, and cardiac arrest. The cause of Myocardial infection, occurs when the outer part or the surrounding of the heart is being affected by a bacteria. The myocardium does not extract oxygen and nutrients from the blood within the atria and ventricles but depends upon its own blood supply via that coronary blood flow leads to myocardial damage in the affected region and, if severe enough, to death of that portion of the myocardium (infarction). This is a so-called heart attack. Because damaged heart cells leak certain enzymes, the finding of these enzymes in plasma is a useful diagnostic tool.
The severity of a myocardial infarction and the likelihood of the person’s survival depends on the amount of tissue damaged and the region of the heart involved. If the damage is a portion of the conducting system, it tends to be more serious. Insufficient coronary flow may occur as a result of decreased arterial pressure but is more commonly due to increased coronary-artery resistance secondary to coronary arteriosclerosis.
Angina Pectoris is when bacteria affects the heart itself. Many patients experience recurrent transient episodes of inadequate coronary blood flow usually during exertion or emotional tension.
The treatment for angina is the surgical technique known as coronary by pass. It can be detected often by X-rays after injection of dye into the heart. And passed by implantation of a graft, usually a vein taken from else where in the patient’s body. This operation often produces marked relief of angina, and may also prolong life in some persons.
Another heart disease is Hypertension, this could result from an increase in cardiac output. When blood pressure stays above normal limits for a long period of time, cardiovascular damage occurs. Chronic high blood pressure damages arteries. Some arteries weaken under the continuous high pressure. However, for more than 95 percent of the persons with hypertension the causes of it are unknown. But cigarette smoking is also an important factor in hypertension. This is because nicotine in cigarette smoke narrows the arteries.
Cardiovascular diseases damage the heart and blood vessels and prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the tissues. If the tissues cannot get enough oxygen, they will not work properly. It can cause severe damage to the body. Some cardiovascular diseases seem to appear suddenly. The person may not even know there is anything wrong until something happens or a heart attack occurs. It also leads to stroke.
Finally, cardiac arrest is when the heart stops carrying out its functions and this eventually leads to the death of the patient.
A patient suffering from heart disease should not smoke and should avoid alcohol. The patient should reduce his/her intake of salt in they’re diet. The patient should avoid fatty foods and high–cholesterol foods. Do not take coffee and tea. A lot of banana should be avoided.
Keep a trim body. Being over weight increases the risk of heart attack. Choose a diet that includes enough of the essential nutrients. But do not try to lose weight too fast.
Exercise regularly. It improves cardiovascular fitness. Such as walking, dancing, swimming and running at ease. Avoid unnecessary stress. It is important to avoid situations that make you nervous. Prayers and trusting in God is the major aspect of it.
Some foods aggravate the disease. And the intake may lead to a shorter life span of the patient. The patients should try as much as possible to follow the instructions given to them by cardiologists or experts.