| As young people become old enough to explore their sexuality their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS rises .Yet in many African countries there is often opposition to introducing topics relating to sex and reproductive health in school curriculum. Young women are especially vulnerable; in some urban settings ,African female adolescents 15 to 19 years old suffer six times the rate of HIV infection of than their male counterparts. Millions of young Africans with HIV positive parents also face the emotional stress, poverty and homeless of orphanhood. In sub-Saharan Africa, women make up 55 percent of infected population. women have greater biological vulnerability to the virus and are often unable to protect themselves because they cannot refuse sex with their male partners or demand that condoms be used. Women also carry the burden of passing the virus to their children via pregnancy and breastfeeding. Therefore programmes need to take into account womenâ€™s particular needs as well as target both the women and their male partners.HIV/AIDs and violence are two major and interrelated health problems affecting women world wide. Without treatment, HIV positive pregnant women have at least a 30 percent chance of passing the virus to their new borns.In many cases, the cycle of HIV infection starts with groups where there is frequent change in sexual partners, such as communities of miners or Agricultural workers, where large numbers of men live away from their families and visit sex workers. The spread of HIV within these communities is exacerbated by high rates of other STI's which can increase vulnerability to HIV as much as tenfold.
Gender refers to societal beliefs about the roles and responsibilities that are appropriate for women and men. Research has shown that the gender based imbalance in power found in the socio-economic sphere is frequently reflected to sexual relationships. Beliefs about masculinity and family affect the sexuality of both men and women as well as their risk of HIV and other STI's. Societal expectations of men and women also have an impact on their care and support needs, for example: the burden of AIDS related care often fall disproportionately on women. There is the need to identify ways to improve HIV/AIDS programmes and services through operations research that takes gender and sexuality into account. HIV/AIDS related stigmatization and discrimination threaten the effectiveness of prevention and care programmes.Fear,ignorance and denial lead people to react to people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWA)in ways that can have negative effects on individuals, families and communities. Those at risk or already infected may not seek prevention and care services for fear of being stigmatized by service providers or their community. Despite the scope and severity of the problem there is little documentation of the causes and manifestation of said stigma or even a consensus on how to correct the problem. According to UNAIDS framework for Global leadership on HIV/AIDS an expanded response to the epidemic is one that simultaneously acts on reducing risk vulnerability and impact. The impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals ,families,communities,societies and nation goes far beyond physical illness and death; it encompasses socio-economic effects, including increased poverty and hunger; demographic effects eg.,increase in orphans ad vulnerable children; community effects e.g., the weakening of the educational sector due to high morbidity and mortality among teachers. The sexual behaviors of todayâ€™s youth will shape the course of the AIDS pandemic in the future. In developing countries, recent data indicate that about half of all new HIV infections are among 15 to 24 years olds. Moreover young men and women in this age range have the highest incidence of sexually transmitted infections(STIâ€™s)of the all age groups. In many cases programmes for young people can help them adopt safe behaviours.But in some situation such as sexual abuse, early marriage or sexual activity due to poverty young people are forced into unsafe sex and programmes and policies are needed to protect them.
Recent gains in child survival rates are threatened by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Each year, approximately 600,000 infants most of them in sub-Saharan Africa are born with HIV infection as a result of mother to child transmission of HIV. The rising number of HIV infected children places an enormous burden on families and health care system. And it will not be without a concerted global effort that the planet will be free of the scourge of AIDS.
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